Poliomyelitis is a contagious disease caused by a virus that invades the nervous system and may lead to total paralysis within hours. It affects mostly children under five.
Poliovirus multiplies in the intestines and goes into the bloodstream and can damage specific nerve cells resulting in paralysis. Paralysis of the respiratory muscles can lead to death of the patient.
Plenty of fibers is found in the feces of infected people and water contaminated by feces. It is transmitted through fecal-oral route. Poor hygienic condition is a risk factor.
There are three types of polioviruses;
Type 1, 2 and 3. The most common cause of polio epidemic is the type 1 wild poliovirus.
Type 2 wild poliovirus has been eradicated (WHO declaration September 2015) and type 3 has not been seen since 2012.
The disease confers permanent immunity against the type of virus concerned.
It varies between 3 and 35 days. Confirmation of diagnosis is made by stool examination in the laboratory.
Initial symptoms are fever, vomiting, fatigue, headaches, stiff neck and limb pains. An irreversible paralysis of the lower limbs in general, occurs in 1 out of 200 infected persons.
Etiology call of the disease. The treatment is symptomatic.
Vaccination and hygiene compliance remain an effective preventive measure against polio. There are two types of vaccines against. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) which uses live attenuated virus strains and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) which is the injectable form.
The administration of several doses of vaccine against polio confers protection for life on the chart it is estimated that a child must take at least 4 to 6 doses of vaccines against polio to be protected.
So always make sure your children take the exact number of doses so as to beprevented from this terrible disease.
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