HELLO SIZ FAMILY,
In the early 1940s, the first electronic computers, the ABC (Atanasoff Berry Computer) and the ENIAC (Electronic Numerator, Integrator, Analyzer, and Computer) were built. The ABC was the first computer to calculate using vacuum tubes. The ENIAC was a war time special purpose computer. Several years later in the 1949, the first general purpose computer (ESDAC - Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer) was completed. In 1951, the Sperry Rand Corporation built the UNICAC (Universal Automatic Computer). It was the first commercially available computer.
Computers were becoming smaller, faster, and more powerful everyday, and they were being applied tgo more varied tasks. In 1956, the first compact transistorized computer system was introduced. A few years later in 1960, the first integrated circuit was produced by jack Billy of Texas Instruments. In the mid-1960's mini computers began appearing.
GENERATIONS OF ELECTRONIC DIGITAL COMPUTERS
In the two decades after 1954, thousands of computers were put into operation, and today literally millions of computers are in use. Computer developments over the years have resulted in machines with greatly increase speed, storage or memory, and overall computing power. These developments were so far-reaching and numerous that they have been categorized by generations.
FIRST GENERATION (UP TO 1955)
Early first generation computers utilized vacuum tubes in their circuitry and for storage of data and instructions. However, vacuum tube was bulky, caused tremendous heat problems, and was never a completely reliable electronic device; it cause a great number of breakdowns and inefficient operations.
some basic features of the first generation computers are:
==> Utilized vacuum tube in their circuitry
==> Instructions were coded in machine language
==> Expensive to buy
==> Slow and often unreliable
==> Limited internal storage
SECOND GENERATION (1955 TO 1964)
The second generation saw the replacement of vacuum tube in computer circuits with the transistor. A transistor is a semi-conductor device, and can be thought of as a switch, such as a light switch, but with no moving parts. It was invented at Bell Telephone Laboratories by J Bardeen and W.H. Brattain. This permitted computers to be built, which were smaller and more reliable, and which consumed less power. Later the surface-barrier transistor was developed in 1954 by philco; this significantly improved the speed of computers. Thereafter, the development of discrete transistor technology continued with the introduction of logic families called Direct-coupled transistor logic (DCTL), diode-transistor logic (DTL), and resisto-transistor logic (RTL). These represented efforts continually made by the manufacturers to improve the performance of the basic elements computer hardware.
second generation computers were characterized by the following:
THIRD GENERATION (1964 TO 1972)
As with the previous generation, third generation computers are most strongly characterized by a technological innovation, in this case the use of integrated circuits (ICs). Instead of the former discrete components, the semiconductor industry began producing ICs on which the equivalent of several transistors were fabricated. This newest advance took place in the early 1960s. It was the Sylvania Corporation which first produced the logic family which has remained popularly in use up to the present day: transistor-transistor logic (TTL).
Third generation computers were characterized by:
- the use of Integrated circuits
- increased processing capabilities
- devices that could communicate with computers over long distances were introduced
- ability to scan a page and input the "observed" information directly into the computers
- ability to display pictures, and make musical sounds
- the use of English-like computer languages such as COBOL, e.t.c. for coding
- increased storage
- faster input and output
FOURTH GENERATION (1972 TO 1989)
With the development of large-scale integrated circuits, manufacturers was that they could produce an IC containing enough logic to implement a small CPU. In 1971, Intel brought the first microprocessors, notably Intel's 8080 and the Motorolla 6800, became very widely used products.
The development of very large-scale integration (VLSI) in the late 1970s meant that tens hundreds of thousands of individual components could be produced on a single silicon chip. This led to the development not only of complete 'single-chip computers', but also of much more powerful single chip processors, 32-bit architectures.
These various innovations - LSI, microprocessors and VLSI - led us to the fourth generation of computers.
Fourth generation computers were characterized by:
- the use of Large Scale Integrated Circuit (LSI) and Very Large Scale Intergrated Circuit (VLSI)
- greater input
- greater output
- greater storage
- greater processing capabilities
- introduction of CD-ROM technology
- significant advancement in software
FIFTH GENERATION (1989 - PRESENT)
One ongoing trend in computer development is microminiaturization; this is the effort to compress more circuit elements into smaller chip space.
The "fifth generation" computer effort to develop computers that can solve complex problems in what might eventualy be called creative ways is another computer developmentk, the ideal goal being true artificial intelligence. Artificial Intelligence simulates some aspects of human thought. Such systems might communicate with users and programmers in natural languages, such as English or French, rather than in specialized computer languages. They might solve problems without having to be told step-by-step how to arrive at the solutions. Instead, they would draw on knowledge and problem-solving techniques previously collected from human experts in the field in which the problem arises. One path actively being explored is parallel processing computer, which uses many chips to perform several different tasks at the same time. Another ongoing trend is the increase in computer networking, which now also uses satellites to link computers globally.
Fifth generation computers are/will be characterized by:
- knowledge-based systems
- ability to reason
- ability to learn
- extremely fast processing speed
- massive storage capabilities
- smaller hardware size
- voice recognition
Computer is a very important device in our society because it helps us to solve complex tasks and make our work easier for us. Otherworldly, It saves our time and stress for us! The brains behind computer systems need some accolades because they have helped alleviate the burden of performing complex tasks manually. Thanks for reading and supporting my post! May God bless you all!!!