The "constellation" is a vast system consisting of billions of stars. The constellations are one of the major constellations in the universe. A galaxy is a large, well-organized system bound by a powerful gravitational force. Which is made up of stars, gaseous clouds, interstellar gases, dust particles, plasma, and large quantities of invisible matter. An ideal galaxy could contain approximately 10 million to 1 trillion stars. And all of this revolves around a strong gravitational center.
From today's discussion, we will learn how to create such a vast installation as the Galaxy. We all know that stars are the main component of a galaxy. A galaxy is made up of billions of stars. The role of stars in the formation of galaxies is much greater. Therefore, it is important to know in detail how the formation of galaxies began with the formation of early stars in the universe.
• Detailed discussion: -
Since stars are a key component of galaxy formation, let us first take a look at the history of star formation. According to the model of the Big Bang Theory, the universe started from a very dense and heated point. Which is called the singularity point. In the early days of creation, the universe was balanced and isotropically filled with matter of the same very high energy concentration and high temperature and pressure. And this substance was a cold invisible substance. And this cool invisible matter is now known as (dark matter) or invisible matter which still covers 23% of the total mass of the universe.
Inflation of the universe helps to establish almost the same temperature in every part of space. At this point in the middle of the equilibrium density somewhere between the increase and decrease of the density of the future galaxy formation seeds are formed, that is, the formation of star formation, the main component of the formation of the galaxy. Dark matter or invisible matter has a special role to play in the formation of galaxies by attracting the material world against the expansion by the force of gravity.
After the cosmic inflation stopped, there was a substance in the universe called quark-gluon plasma. A reaction occurs between these substances at some point in space-time. At the time of creation, the temperature of the universe was much higher, but as the size of the universe increased its temperature decreased. When the temperature of the universe drops to 3000 Kelvin, a phase transition occurs at some point during the temperature drop which causes the symmetry to break. This is when the elementary particles are formed. Quarks and gluons combine to form baryons (such as protons and neutrons). Sometime later, protons and neutrons combine to form the earliest elements, deuterium, and helium.
About 360,000 years after the Big Bang, protons and neutrons combine to form the nucleus, and electrons are attached to the nucleus to form an atom. Of these, hydrogen atoms are formed, and helium and lithium atoms.
As the universe expanded, so did the distribution of the universe. But there were also some inconsistencies. That is, a little denser in some places and a little less dense in some places. This is when the first gaseous clouds or nebulae originated. Most of these nebulae contained hydrogen (about 90%) and a small amount of helium (about 9%) as well as lithium, oxygen, and other gases (about 1%). We know that as the temperature of a gaseous substance increases, it expands and as the temperature decreases, it compresses. So if a gaseous cloud in a given region of a heated nebula radiates a sufficient amount of heat without any effect from anything outside, then that region of the nebula begins to cool and shrink. The regions of the gaseous cloud that are slightly denser than the other regions have a contraction between the gaseous particles and the dust, so that the gaseous particles inside the gaseous cloud become much closer to each other, thus reducing the distance between them and the gravitational pull between them stronger than before. And as a result of strong gravitational pull, they are connected to each other at some point. As a result, their mass increases a little more than before. And as the mass increases, so does their gravitational force. This enables them to attract more distant gaseous particles and dust particles by their gravitational force. In this way, gaseous particles and dust particles combine to form a huge gas pind. The friction of matter between these gaseous finds causes a great deal of temperature, and at that extreme temperature, hydrogen begins to melt and the nuclear fusion reaction begins. The reaction produces hydrogen-helium, which produces a great deal of heat and light. And with that came the origin of the first bright object in the universe, the "star." The first star in the universe was born about 400 million years after the Big Bang.
The stars that formed independently in the early days of the universe were enormous in size and mass. Because at that time the nebulae from which the stars were born were also huge in size. And the larger the nebula, the more gas and dust it accumulates, and the larger the star will be. The mass of the early stars formed after the Big Bang was hundreds of times greater than that of our Sun. And we know that the higher the mass of a star, the greater the pressure density inside it. As a result, he will run out of fuel quickly. For this reason, the life span of large mass stars is the shortest. The lifespan of all these stars is only a few million years (about 1-3 million years).
And since the early stars of the universe were massive, they quickly depleted their energy and were destroyed in the last lifetime by a giant explosion called a hypernova explosion. And with this massive explosion, the star was destroyed and turned into a black hole. And the intense shock wave caused by this gigantic explosion compressed other nearby gaseous clouds, creating new star formations. In this way, many stars are gradually formed in the universe. And the giant star first depletes its energy and turns into a black hole through a hypernova explosion, then the black hole continues to attract other nearby stars, intercity gas, and dust particles, plasmas formed by its strong gravitational pull. As a result, other nearby stars, gas, dust, and plasma begin to accumulate in the vicinity of the black hole due to the strong gravitational pull of the black hole. The black hole continues to engulf the nearby gaseous clouds and stars by the force of gravity, causing its mass to increase more than before, and it gradually becomes a massive object. And the stars farther away from the black hole continue to revolve around a specific orbit due to the strong gravitational pull of the black hole. And the objects that were in the strong gravitational field of the black hole all together formed an orderly system called the galaxy.
Black holes play a major role in building a large, well-organized system like the galaxy. We know that the center of each galaxy now has a supermassive black hole and that all the stars in that galaxy revolve around that black hole. All the stars in the galaxy are in a specific orbit due to the force of the gravitational force of that huge black hole in the center of the galaxy. The huge black holes in the center of the galaxy are huge in size and huge, but it is not possible to create such a large black hole at once. So scientists believe that after the formation of a galaxy, a few medium-mass black holes at its center merge to form such a large black hole, or the black hole at the center of the galaxy is swallowed up by millions of stars and gaseous clouds over millions of years.
The intense shock wave created by the destruction of old stars in the gravitational field of the supermassive black hole in the center of the galaxy causes the gaseous clouds in the galaxy to shrink to form new stars. In this way, the game of birth and death of stars continues inside the galaxy. It is not possible to say exactly which is the first galaxy to form in the universe, but the oldest galaxy we have ever found in the GN-Z11. Its distance from the Earth is about 32 billion light-years. It is the oldest of the galaxies found in the observed universe. This is because the red emission of light emitted from this galaxy is the weakest compared to other galaxies. So now it can be said that GN-Z11 is the first galaxy to form in the universe
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To the attention of @tarpan.