We all know about the pole star. In songs, poems, stories, or novels, the most famous stars in the sky after the sun are the polar stars. Constant means stationary, stationery, eternal, etc. In English, it is called Pole Star, Polar Star, or Polaris. In Latin, it is called Lodestar, which means sign star. Dhruvatara is also known as Guiding Star, North Star. From ancient times the polar stars have been the most mysterious of the visible stars in the earth's sky.
Due to the ecliptic motion of the earth, the position of the stars in the night sky gradually shifted. When photographed over a long period of time (or by taking periodic pictures and attaching them later), these stars are no longer found as dots but as a line of light (this is called star trail photography). But one of the stars is an exception. This star is located just above the Earth's rotation axis along with the North Pole, so it seems to be stationary relative to the Earth's rotation, and the rest of the stars seem to revolve around it ( Figure ). This star is called a pole star.
Since there are no such significant stars in the sky along with the South Pole, the polar stars are the same. However, the polar stars are not single stars, there are several stars in this position. As the axis of rotation of the earth is oscillating, when the axis is moved, another star emerges as a constant in that position. This change is a millennial process. The current polar star is Polaris. Polaris itself is not a single star, but a few stars in the sky are seen in the same position, so all these stars together seem to be bright stars. It has been used since ancient times to guide travelers as the polar stars are in a precise position in the sky.